Although this structure may be effective for binary phase shift keying in Rayleigh fading, it is suboptimal for Rician fading and for 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation in Rayleigh fading.
Before being combined and transmitted over a single channel, the transmission undergoes simulated Rayleigh fading.
According to the invention, it is determined whether one of an uplink (25) or a downlink (25) of a radio channel (23) is subject to a Rayleigh fading dip.
In this manner the measurement period can be made shorter than the frequency of the Rayleigh fading.
A low complexity model based channel estimator is disclosed for use by a receiver in Rayleigh fading environments.
Pilot symbol assisted modulation (PSAM) techniques for Rayleigh and Rician fading channels are derived.
The in-band translators employ delay combining to preserve receive diversity, in order to mitigate deep Rayleigh fades.
The audio output is attenuated during weak signals or Rayleigh fades only when the attenuation control signal increases above a predetermined signal-to-noise ratio threshold.